Blender 2.49 Quick Access to Neal Hirsigs Course

This page has been removed, as the links are not active any more, Neal Hirsig's course has been relocated.

(If you learn Blender 2.5, skip this page !)

Some of you might go back to, or use Blender 2.49 now and then.
This page contains a "Quickest Access" to Neal Hirsig's video tutorials for Blender 2.49, including shortest descriptions, mainly shortcuts.

Table of Contents


Default Scene/Window Description

video 2.45
Default: 3 Windows: Information Window (MenuBar Top, extend by dragging down when double arrow appears on roll over MenuBar Edge); 3D Viewport (Choose View-DropDown-Icon:Change View); Default Scene contains: Lamp, Box ,Camera in Top View -click ScrollWheel (MMB) and drag to rotate and see 3D ; Buttons Window

video 2.5

Splitting and Joining Windows

video 2.45
Example: Split 3D Viewport horizontally: scroll over vertical edge until double arrow appears -RIGHT click, choose split window;(Information Window drag down -View&Controls -show NAME); Join Windows: scroll over edge -right click -choose join ( "eats" darkened-arrow-window);

video 2.5
To join windows hoover over widget on right upper corner until cursor changes to crioss, left click and drag to split - same to join, drag cursor into window you want to "swallow".
FULL SCREEN Shortcut: select window and press Ctrl + UP Arrow, to go back to multiple editor windows: Ctrl + DOWN - Arrow.

3D Viewport Navigation

video 2.45
Example: Create Object: choose view (Top, Front..), place 3D Cursor -object placed there; (2.45: SpaceBar;) (2.5: Shift + A: Menu/ 2.5: Spacebar: type in searchbox):) create object; press TAB-Key to switch from Edit- to Object Mode; View: NumPad 7: Top; 1: Front; 3: Side; Ctrl + 7,1,3: Bottom, Back, OtherSide; Wheel/MMB/+,- Keys : zoom; NumPad arrows/MMB pressed: rotate/orbit; pan/move screen: Shift + Wheel/MMB -drag; NumPad 0: camera view;

video 2.5

Viewport Shading

video 2.45
Shading: Menu Icon or Z-Key: to switch between Solid and Wireframe; (most used - mostly wireframe) other: Shading Mode, Textrure Mode, Boundig Box Mode;

Perspective and Ortographic Projection

video 2.45
NumPad 5: toggle between orthographic and perspective view Menu: View - Orthographic
(orthographic: default when adding objects: parallels remain parallel; perspective: Render View: extended parallels meet would at vanishing point on horizon.)

Maneuvering in 3D Space

video 2.45
minirep: MMB +Shift: pan, MMB pressed: rotate, wheel: zoom; Ctrl + NumPad arrows: pan in steps; NumPad Period-Key: centers selected Object ; Pos1/Home NumPad: centers complete scene; NumPad 0: camera view; Numpad 0 + Shift+ Alt: Align active camera to view;

Blender for Laptops

video 2.45
emulate NumPad to use laptop numbers instead of NumPad: drag down User Preferences in Information window: Window in 2.45 - click System and open GL - click emulate NumPad button; Then "File" (MenuBar Top) - choose: Save as default settings.


video 2.45
select object, M-Key: Layer Menu, object moved to Layer you cleickselect by OK; Shift + select to activate/display several layers only selection rendered;

Loading and Saving Files

video 2.45
create folder for blender files; First time: F2 - File(MenuBar) - Save As to locate - Arrowicon ( under P icon left upper corner 2.45shows computer structure - choose; click Save as twice; continuous saving: Ctrl + W / File(MenuBar)- Save: choose overwrite ;
automatic backup;

Default File/Personal Settings

video 2.45
no cube, 10 autosaves, activate View Name, evtl emulate numpad for laptops (Information Window), split screen; to save: Menu: File - save default settings: Ctrl + U

Undo /Redo

video 2.45
Ctrl Z: Undo; Alt + Ctrl + Z: Redo; Information Window: Editing Methods: adjust, more memory;
Alt U: Global Undo History - menu: steps listed, back to including finished step you did;
Undo history covers saving, but gone if you close file.

Outliner Window

video 2.45
split and choose outliner: graphical relationship display - View Mwnu: choose show outliner - list view. shows parent-child-relationship (Ctrl + P: make last active parent);


video 2.45
hierarchical system of linked datablocks: empty scene; Outliner in extra window; View: show OOPS scematic; add cube: 2 data blocks added: Object Data Block (Icon: Axisarrows) (about Object Center Pivot Point) and Mesh Data Block (Icon: Vertices-EdgesTriangle) (what we see) records transfomations; organize oops panel by dragging;
Transormations like rotation stored in Object Data Block

Blender Data Blocks Part 2

Text Window

video 2.45
create extra window: choose text editor from viewmenuicon; choose "add new" by clicking arrowmenu besides name on footer/menu of textwindow; choose show lines from buttons; @documentation;

Background Image

video 2.45
Front View -View - Background Image- Dialogue Box: Use Background Image - Load - select from harddrive - press Select Image - Image there + Dialogue Box: Use: Show or hide Image; Blend: transparency; Size: default 5 - increase or decrease; Draw along image: example Bezier Curve: right click + G-position Vertex, RMB (right click) to adjust handle, Ctrl+LMB (left click) to add new curve segment;
Image only visible in orthographic view, but same in any view: therefore: - load Top (or other) View image: Folder Icon on Background Image Dialogue Box, add another image: change when in view (arrow icon beside name) to display the one you want. Box Modeling demo;

Appending Objects

video 2.45
Import parts from other files; Shift + F1: Append, Menu: File: Append; Search File, choose Objects from Library List; Choose by RIGHT click which objects to import -load library; check layer !

Blender Groups

video 2.45
Select first element of group; Object Buttons - Object and Links Panel: Add to group - Create New - Name it, select other objects and add; Green outlines indicates belonging to Group; LINK to this group from other file: Save named; New file:Menu File -Append or Link - click on file; choose group - buttons: instead of append: LINK; To add it: Spacebar (Shift +A) add Group; Add other object to distinct or more; Group is not editable, but transoformable : grab, scale, rotate; Changes on Original will change in other file using it. Open "Empty" in Outliner Window: Shows group (acts like empty: scaleable.. but not editable) (Minianimationdemo: I-KEy - Loc(ation) - choose Frame, move object - repeat along path;

Appending Materials

video 2.45
Menu: File - Append - select file, Materials Folder - right select multiple materials - load library; Materials now part of file, to apply: select object, shading Buttons, press small dropdown-arrowkey next to material name, select from loaded. Textured Materials: to add uploded Texture to file: Click small icon under Shading/Texture button on Image panel, besides Link to uploaded texture: "Toggles Packed Status of this Image"

Display Speed and File Size

video 2.45
reduce size/faces-edges-vertices; empty: ca 100KB; Top Menu line (bottom line Information Window) : displays amount of vertices, edges, faces and Memory amount; very general: 1000 faces 100 more KB; modifiers increase strongly;

File Browser/Image Browser

video 2.45
Browse (no upload)' from within Blender : select file browser in one window - different filter options to list files; P-Key to jump up one level; For Images: preview with actual pixel size displayed on roll-over; as preview advantage.

Reset 3D Cursor

video 2.45
View - View Properties shows actual position of 3D Cursor;
Shift + C : Cursor at center of 3Dfile (x,y,z=0)

Keyboard Shortcuts Window

video 2.45
Activate display in chosen window - Scripts Menu: by Help (Menu Top Bar= footer of hidden Information Window) ) - Hotkey and Mouseaction Reference; (unless activated not displayed in Scripts Menu view; simple Search (!)


Primitive Mesh Objects

video 2.45
Place 3D cursor by left click; Space 2.45/Shift +A 2.5: Menu: Add -Mesh -….if: define per dialogue box …TAB (-Key) out of edit mode before creaating other object, otherwise part of last object.


video 2.45
Spacebar (Shift-A in 2.5) Add -Mesh - Icosphere: made out of triangles; Torus: Major and Minor diameter/segments;

Naming Objects

video 2.45
Make habit to name objects: N-Key: Transform Properties panel, change Name, see other transformation options;

2-Dimensional Objects: Plane - Grid - Circle Objects

video 2.45
2-dimensional; Plane: 4 vertices, edges; 1face - Mesh Tools - subdivide in edit mode; Add -Mesh -Grid: define subdivision before; Circle Object: filled or not:
Delete 3 vertices from plane - one single vertex remains: create continuing lines: Ctrl + Left Click to create own shape, edge by edge created by new vertex set via LMB. To close object create until : select 2 vertices to F-Key: closes by edge between selected vertices; ; Or like in video: last vertex very close to first: W Key: Merge vertices at center - removes not needed.

Selecting Objects

video 2.45
Right click - select object (in wireframe klick on edge); A - Key deselects/selects everything in the scene;
B - Key: Box or Border -select: drag box around objects to select with LMB pressed.

Moving Objects

video 2.45
RMB right clik to select, G Key to grab and move it, LMB Left click to place it: Or RMB to select, drag a straight line, then grab mode is applied to object, move it an left click to fix position; ESC if you did not want move; G Key + X,Y,Z to define axis; G + Ctrl : snap to grid; G + Shift: more precision;

Scaling Objects

video 2.45
RMB=right click to select, S-Key - move cursor away from or towards center - scales up and down; Cursor positioned further away from object - more control; S + X,Y,Z scale along only selected axis;
Alternatively via menu: Transform Manipulator ( - switch move-arrows to scale-box on Menu (3D Viewport Footer-menu icons, default:move-arrows)

Rotating Objects

video 2.45
RMB select, R - Key rotate by moving cursor; rotation axis perpendicular to view -> controlable rotation; Alternatively via Menu - Transform Manipultator- switch to circle icon on 3D Viewport footer-menu; Alternatively: LMB pressed - leftclick, hold and draw a Z on the screen - you automatically jump to scale-mode; R + X,Y,Z - define rotation axis;

Transform Properties Panel

video 2.45
N-Key: opens panel to enter precise/numeric position details (rotation, move, scale and name); type number or click arrows;

Global/Local Orientation

video 2.45
Axis widget on left bottom of 3Dviewportwindow shows actual global orientation; If you want to manipulate a rotated object along its own axises: choose local from Drop´down menu (default global) in 3Dviewport footer-menu;

Pivot Points

video 2.45
default Pivot Point: Bounding Box Center, switch in dropdown-iconMenu in 3Dviewportfootermenu; If several selected see, that Median Point (center of all objects) is not the same as Bounding Box Center of the same;

Object Centers

video 2.45
When added, the center point marks the actual center of the object; Object is transformed around this point; when moved in edit mode, the center stays, where it was in object mode; this means rotation around the center point outside of the object then; If: press CENTER NEW button in Button Window - edit Buttons - Mesh Panel; button CENTER: moves Mehs to new center; Center Cursor: moves center to where cursor is (if you WANT to position rotation center outside)

Duplicating Objects

video 2.45
independent copy: RMB select; Shift + D places Duplicate copy right on top in grab mode; to create LINKED copy (changes affect both original and copy): ALT + D

Parenting Objects

video 2.45
last selected object /active object/lighter selection color gets parent to other Ctrl + P;clearing relationship: selecting all objects: Alt + P - select clear parent..; parent to parented objects: General Idea: parent moves child with it, child can move alone;

Deleting Objects

video 2.45
select RMB; X- Key of Delete - Key - select erase selected object; undo by Ctrl + Z

Joining Objects

: Ctrl + J; last active Object is Center; New Object center; no undo;


video 2.45
only in edit mode, select part of an object; P-Key, choose selected: selected part separate object (switch to object mode and move);
problem if you press P key in object mode; if it happens: Escape Key;

Boolean Menu

video 2.45
2 methods: Menu driven - this (other Modifier); both objects must have enough vertices (!!) - to subdivide: select, wireframe - edit mode: F9 - Mesh tools panel in buttons window, press subdivide button;
W -Key: Boolean Menu, choose intersect: menu driven: always creates new object and keeps originals (grab and move to see result) ; no way to undo except Ctrl + Z / Alt + U (global Undo History);
Difference: Subtracts first selected from second; (the other way round in 2.49 (!))
Material of united, subtracted or differencebooled objects from both objects involved;
Bolean Operation between two objects.

Boolean Modifier

video 2.45
check to have enough vertices for Modifier-Boolean too; (Edit mode - F9 edit buttons in buttons window - subdivide button in mesh tool panel);
N-Key to name objects in Transform Properties panel; RMBselect object you want to apply Modifier to - F9 editbuttons - Modifier Panel - add Modifier - Boolean; choose kind of operation (arrowdropdown), enter name of object to create modification by; Apply: Original gone, only modified object remains, assisting second object remains untouched - Only shapes of "assisting object" are used, modified objects' material only;
Boolean Operation on one object.


video 2.45
prepare rough faced object, F9 edit buttons - Link and Material Panel - click Set Smooth buttton; applies rendering attribute that smoothes out faces; Z-Key wireframe shows that mesh not affected, only rendering smoothed; Set Solid reverses attribute;
In edit mode possible to set smooth only selected part of object;
Edit Mode all selected - Set Smooth: additional: Auto Smooth button in Mesh Panel: allows to define degree upto wich attribution is applied to faces, over set degree definition not set smooth;

Empty Object

video 2.45
Spacebar(2.45 - Shift + A in 2.5) - Add: Empty; point in space; Usually used as parent or part of hook or constraint system to affect other objects;

Text Objects

Spacebar(2.45) / Shift+A(2.5) Add -Text; Backspace to write Text you want - load any font: load in F9 editbuttons-Font Panel - blender marks available purple; To Extrude: Curve and Surface Panel - click arrow besides "Extrude"propertycontrol or bevel edges…;
Text objects are not Mesh Objects; To edit individually: convert: RMBselect, Alt + C - first convert to curve; then Alt+C again, convert to Mesh - now editable in object and edit mode;


Surface subdivision: subdivide + rounded form, edit and object mode, usually edit mode;
Modifier applied via Add Modifier Menu in edit buttons Modifier Panel; Several Controls in Modifier Panel to adjust - Levels; Render Level;
Optimal Draw (see in WireFrame -> Z-key); shows underlying framework; Optimal draw reduces display to editable edges and vertices; (still a cube..)
Wire: Object Buttons F7 - Draw Panel - draws outline wireframe even in object mode;
Editing Cage: Button (!) - not marked circle besides Subsurf Control - when clicked shows verticestriangle; Applies from Editing Cage onto surface of subsurfed object;
Loop Select: ALT + RMB; Knife : K(subdivides crossed edges); Join Triangles; rounding, too many faces for smoothing;
Subsurf for rounding rather than smoothing.

If: black areas when Rendering: Recalculate Normals - their orientation gets mixed (inconsistent) by subsurf process - Select all vertices, Ctrl + N (Only for "Manifold Mesh" - Non-Manifold means there is not one clear out and one inside - to avoid, they leave black lines after recalculating normals and Decimator toll doesn't work)

Weigthed Crease

Weighted edge crease for subdivision surfaces allow to adjust the way Subsurf models geomertry, to give edges/corners a sharp or smooth appearance.
Select edges to adjust - Press Shift + E , drag mouse out of model to sharpen (increase weight), towards to smooth them (decrease weight).
It is also possible to enter direct in Transform Properties Panel . "Crease W" - for complete object.
And finally to activate "Draw Creases" in Mesh Tools More Panel. (Left Bottom)

Symmetrical Modeling Part 1

video 2.45
To see all while modeling on half in order to mirror later:
Front view: Alt + D - create a linked duplicate of half-object - move it on x-axis and rotate (set: ScaleX = -1 via N-Menu)
Model half - see on both;
"example try": - put together by transform snap tool: select magnet/horseshoe in Menu-3Dviewportwindow "closest" in dropdown; Select one half, press G, and Ctrl while moving it towards other half. Selected vertices snap to closest.
Select all, W-key (Special Menu) - Remove Doubles;

Symmetrical Modeling Part 2

video 2.45
Apply Mirror Modifier to original half: Buttons Window, Edit Buttons, Modifier Panel - add Modifier - Mirror - automatically creates Mirrored Half (default on x-plane;
Other controls: Merge Limit: Distance from which vertivces snap together ; Do Clipping button prevents vertices from crossing the Mirror plane;
Another modifier like subsruf allows to control result;

Mirror Menu

video 2.45
Object and Edit Mode; Create duplicate to mirror and move to side; Ctrl + M to open Mirror Menu, choose along which axis;
Same: N-Key (Properties Menu - ScaleX,Y,Z change to -1;
In Edit Mode only M-Key instead of Ctrl+M; More axis-opportunities to Mirror;
To snap together position cursor inbetween vertices to snap, move in grab mode (G-Key) and press Ctrel -Ley: slected vertices will snap to closest:
W-Key Special Menu - choose Remove Doubles;

Decimator Tool

video 2.45
Reduce number of faces on object; Edit Mode, W - Key (Special Menu) - Bevel; (no option to define recursions in 2.49 );
Decimator Tool: Modifier - Object Mode: Modifier Panel - Add Modifier - choose "decimate" - reduce by arrow on the left, see in wireframe how; Apply;

Curve Modifier

video 2.45
Allows to curve Mesh Objects based on associated curve: (Others like curve or text must be converted to Mesh by Alt+C command)
Check to have enough vertices to apply curve; Example cylinder object;
Select edge mode (3DViewportmenubar_icon), box-select edges to subdivide; To create vertices: Loopcut: Press Shift+K (brings up Cut Type Menu: choose "multiple" decide amount); Click and drag with knife across edges - press enter - creates loops. Select newly xcreated loops via Alt + RMB; (UBUNTU: ALT + RMB is occupied by a Window command - System-Preferences-window - change to other Key than Alt;)
Scale selected loops towards center - where you want to bend the cylinder.
Create a NURBS curve - Add/Shift+A-curve-NURBScurve; Edit mode: select endpoints (Buttons window, CurveTools Panel - Endpoint-U button);
Make it quite straight ; Name it via N-Key- Properties Panel
check Center New in Curve and Surface Panel to enable overlapping of center points;
Select Cylinder - Press Shift+S - select cursor to selection;
Then select curve - Shift+S (snap menu) - selection to cursor;
Add Modifier: Curve - type name of curve into object line in Modifier Panel;
Option: select curve and click Curve Strech in curve panel;
But to center it: move to the center;
Edit Mode - select endpoints - move to bend cylinder;
to bend in 3 dimensions - select 3D in Curve and Surface Panel;

Lattice Deformation

video 2.45
Lattice Deformation Tool deforms any object that is its child. Create an object to deform; Spacebar/Shift+A Add - Lattice Object; Scale it a little larger to embrace and position around object. In object mode add subdivisions in Lattice Panel - Edit buttons (Object Mode); Select object to deform, then Lattice and press Ctrl+P - choose Lattice Deformation as Parent; Now in edit mode you can efrom the object by manipulating the Lattice Vertices;
Select deformed object: In Modifier Panel you see "Lattice Parent Deform" - if you press make real the virtual Lattice is added as Modifier to object: you can then apply deformation permamently to object. Now you can delete the Lattice;

Bevelling Tool

video 2.45
Helps to smooth out corners, only on complete object;
Press W-Key (Special Menu) choose Bevel - in 2.34 you can choose number of recursions, from 2.46 on not;

Snap Tool Menu

video 2.45
Shift + S brings up Snap Menu - 5 options - cursor snapping or selection snapping;
For cursor snap to grid, the view reference point is chosen, not the physical grid.
In edit mode you can select middle of an edge by "cursor to selection"
Moving Selection… video shows advantages in modeling

Array Modifier Part 1

vieo 2.45
Place duplicate objects in particular arrangement; Add Array Modifier via Edit Buttons (F9) / Modifier panel, choose from dropdown; Default: "Fixed Count selected in Dropdown; One Duplicate, Relative offset of One (Object Dimension);
Constant Offset: (Relative Off (click)): Grid as scale; duplicate copy is positioned in x,y,z =1 direction 1 Blednder Unitfurther ;
Relative Object: With of cactual offset is unit.
You'll combine them for adjustment.
Dropdown: Kind of Modifier:
Fixed Length: As many duplicates as fixed to listed Length.
Fit to Curve Length: Create Curve and define length, name; Enter Name of Curve to Panel - editable by editing Curve.
Combine Modifier: Apply ("sets in stone") - creates new object, Modifier not visible any more; and add next;

Array Modifier Part 2

video 2.45
Adjust distance: example fence: turn on Constant Offset to adjust in addition to Relative Offset turned on.
Rotation or Scale by Object Offset: 3 "!": all at same point, scale settings, rotation settings:
Object Offset: (usually Empty object) located at exact Pivot Point of object to rotate.
3D Cursor to Rotation Center; Object Center Pivot point to Rotation Point ("Center Cursor" in Mesh Panel Edit Buttons for object), then create empty object at same point.
Check: Rotation settings ( N-Key - see Transform Properties panel) for Object Offset object (Empty) have to be same as for modified object itself;
Same for Scale Settings.
Now add Array Modifier to object, press Object Offset in Miodifier Panel, enter name of Empty; - to create closed rotated object set Relative Offset to Zero.
Video shows several modeling cases: staircase, chain;



Vertices, Edges and Faces
Selecting Vertices
Selecting Edges
Selecting Faces


video 2.45
subdivide details to work on small part of area; Select, ckick "Subdivide" button in Mesh Tools Panel - Editing Buttons (F9); Subdivide entire object. Be careful with amount of faces.


video 2.45

Select face, press E - Key - creates new face to extrude in or out plus faces for closing extrusion. Left click ends extrusion. Possible for faces, edges or vertices, see video, E-Key brings up Menu to choose from.

Extrude Constraints

video 2.45
E-Key plus X,Y,Z constrains direction of extrusion, S-Key - scales extrusion;

Extrude Duplication

video 2.45
extrude vertices, edges and faces with preset spacing and number of iterations; most simple: objets or parts in edit mode;
F9, edit buttons, Mesh Toold panel - Extrude Dup - Button: efine offset distance and steps; Extrudes Selection in opposite direction of view "away"; (Turn view - offset into new direction)
Usually: Example Single vertex by deleting 3 of Plane; Or to extrude circle - lign up top, bottom and side vertices with axis, by subdividing one edge, after ligning out on one axis.

Organic Extrusion

video 2.45
Select vertex, press Ctrl -Key, left click extrudes vertex, creates edges.

"draw a line" ( background image )- Create Plane, delete all vertices, start from wherever you leftlick and click on while Ctrl -Key pressed,
" close line ": select start and finish vertex: Press F-Key - creates edge between vertices.
to fill closed line : Press Shift + F - creates faces; Alt + F (Beauty Fill) might create better arrangement of faces.
Ctrl - Key + left click (LMB) allows to extrude selected edges and faces too.
If complete obect selected in edit mode - Ctrl + LMB works as duplication method , complete object positioned where you press LMB.
video stopps at minute 7;

Duplicating Objects
Parenting Objects
Deleting Objects


video 2.45
spin an object or curve upto 360 °; direction depending on view;
Remove duplicated vertices : W-Key (Specials Menu) - Remove Doubles;
Works only with Meshes.

Spin Dup

video 2.45
Spin fixed amount of object(s) duplicates. around 0-360° - as one object; Mesh Tools Panel in edit mode - define steps and degrees - press Spin Dup - 360 degree: last on first -delete one object;


video 2.45
Parent selected vertices, edges and faces to (usually Empty) objects. Select, press Ctrl + H (Hook) - option add new empty or add to selected object; often for animation - video shows simple;


video 2.45
Example warp text object in circle; works only on text created in FRONT VIEW - convert Text to Mesh objet: Alt + C to convert to curve, Alt + C again to convert from Curve to Mesh; Select all, subdivide to maximise vertices.
NOW (while Warp tool only works on Text created in Front view), WARPING text works only in TOP VIEW - all selected:
Position Cursor - Shift + W - warp mode around 3D cursor - now drag down cursorconstraint beyond object to adjust;

Proportional Editing

video 2.45
Instead of linear editing fashion: smooth/modeling clay;
Add plane and subdivide strongly (Many Vertices) - now activate proportional Editing in 3D-viewport menubar - Icon "circle" ) Shortvut: O) - choose on in dropdown; NExt dropdown right: choose and try different falloff methods;
Grab selected vertex - you see influence area, increase/decrease by scroll-wheel;

Vertex Edge Face - Loop Selection

video 2.45
Alt + RMB selects entire Loop or Edge if Edge of Object.
Only from pole to pole on a Sphere;

Face Loop Splitting

video 2.45
Create new set of faces by splitting two Loops of Edges in any select mode (vertex, edge, face);
Edit Mode, cursor anywhere on object: : Press Ctrl + R - sets up system/line for selecting Loops to cut. Move mouse - choose ( Future Loop appears 90° to Edge you approach ) - LMB: move in postition, LMB 2nd time to fix.
Delete Loop: Alt + RMB to select Loop - X-Key and choose Edge Loop erase.

Transform Snap Tool

video 2.45
Snap vertex or group of vertices in edit mode/within single object; ! - possible to join Ctrl + J and separate by P menu when done using Transform Snap Tool;
Activate Magnet-horseshoe in 3Dviewportmenu (Or Shift + Tab)
- select Closest:
Select vertex, G -Key, then CTRL pressed - move cursor towards vertex to snap to. Only snapped, not joined or merged.
If several, to snap one closest to to snap to .
Left cklick to set it.
- Median if you want to center object on Vertex of other.
- Center: if you change Pivot from Median Point to 3D cursor (Icon dropdown Pivot Point) - you can extend options;
none in scale mode, only closest in rotation mode.

Knife Cut Subdivide
video 2.45
video shows subdivide cases, Shift + K brings up menu: choose midpoints, drag across edge(s) to cut/subdivid- subdivides with vertex in center. multicut defines amount of cuts across crossed edge.
K -Key only brings up LoopCut Menu first - Loop Cut = **Ctrl + R* — scroll wheel adds Loop Cuts (sensuous scroll). LMB /left click puts to position.

extra: Alt+RMB- Loop select, Ctrl + E - Edges special menu - Edge SLide allows you to reposition Loop between others.

Edge Split Modifier

video 2.45
Modifier allows to render special edges hard though smoothing aplplied to object.
Spin object - Cursor located - spin/rotation center - 360° in Mesh Tools, set Pivot Point for object to 3D cursor, then spin selected curve in tops view on it - remove doubles; smooth object -
Make Edges sharp: Alt -RMB - select Loops - Ctrl + E - Edges special menu, choose mark sharp, select edges you want marked sharp..
Object mode: Add modifier - Edge Split Modifier - select only button "From marked as sharp" in Modifier Panel.

Rip Tool

video 2.45
Rip Tool works with vertices or edges selected, allows to cut the mesh ( like scissors-cutting) along selection; functional by duplication of selected vertices - grab mode of duplicated for opening Mesh.
Select, press V- Key, where to open to , depends on cursor position.
Problem if you don't move duplicated vertex to cut the surface - V - Key, or Rip like opposite of "merge"


Align Vertices

"Vertices auf selben Wert setzen" german forum Thread: blendpolis
sometimes you need to align Vertices along the same x,y or z-value:

select vertices you want to align ( Shift + RMB) - then scale along the axis you need by zero: S + x,y or z + 0

unfinished…more details

Cutting a Hole - Flat Surface

video 2.45
1. Boolean Difference - enough subdivisions/vertices in both objects; W Problem uneven faces;
2. hand-made: Join a non-filled circle and a plane to cut it out from (Ctrl + J) , delete faces on and around circle - select vertices and fill with F Key, Ctrl + F - Keys for several faces (box-selct), Alt + F-Key for "Beautify Fill"
3. Bezier circles: Add/Shift+A Bezier circle; V-Key ( Vectorize) with selected Bezier makes it a square, rotate - in edit mode: Spae, Add - another bezier curve - if on inside another inner is outomatically cut out from outer.

Cutting a Hole - Curved Surface

video 2.45 by CG Cookie 2.49 (?)
create open cylinder tube and create enough vertices at area to cut - Edge Select, K-Key (Loop Cut Menu) - Loop Cut - scroll MMB-wheel stepwise up to create more; Alt - Shift - RMB select all Loops, S , X - Key, scale along x axis - position;
Side View - select items to hide - Mesh Tools Panel - click Hide (hidden in edit mode) - Reveal (besides) reveals them at any time.
Split Screen - Left: Choose face in the center of projection to create, press Shift - V (Align View) choose "to selected top" - viewport aligned straight to selected face (90°)
Side view in second window.
Position cursor (Shift + S ** cursor to selection;)
Still in edit mde: Space - Add - Circle, no fill; move out in side view.
RETOPO Toll: only in shaded mode, circle has to be separate object;
Circle selected: Press **P-Key
, separate selected object. (See by tab - object/edit mode;
Edit Buttons - Mesh Panel, Retopo button; Retopo all (of selected object) - question mark coemns up, left click on surface; - Replaces all circle-vertices projected on curved surface.
Ctrl + J to join both meshes;

Ugly Deformations

forum thread - subsurf, subsurf and creases, edge split modifier, altogether + mark sharp - and trianlges as problem..

Objekte hinter Glas darstellen

blendpolisGerman Forum Thread




Blender Material Basics
Colored Material
Color Picker

Image Textures

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Blender accepts bmp, jpg, png, pga, certain gif images;
Apply Texture: F5, Shading Buttons: add new Material, switch to Texture Buttons: F6: Add New; In Dropdown (Default "None"): Choose: Image, click "Load Image" - load from Harddrive. Loaded: applied to object, preview in preview window; (Re)Name;
Scale Object: Texture scaled too;
In Map Image-Panel (F6) Repeat set on by Default, choose amount of repeats underneath (changes size on object - texture smaller)
Apply Material to second object; Add New Texture or choose from Dropdownarrows; If you choose used texture, make independent: Besides Name number shows how often texture is used in scene, press on number and choose single user - creates independent copy of texture.
F5: Texture, Map Input and Map to Panel:
Map Input panel: says defaut: Projected onto "Flat" - choose shape (Cube, Tube, sphere) here, change preview object display to see preview of result;
sometimes "try" to find best option (example tube - end of video)

BumpMap Texture

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simulates texture and relief based on white, black and grey parts of an image;
Light set, in video nurbs circle extruded; Add Material, name.
Texture Buttons F6: add new, choose "Image" in dropdown, load image from harrdrive;
Turn into Bumpmap: Material Buttons (F5); Map To Panel: By default texture applied to Colour: Choose Normal, deselect Colour.
Now mapped to normals instead of colour: creates Relief:
Slider "Normal": raise intensity of Relief.
Bumpmaps work on any mesh, bezier, nurbs object. Does not effect vertices etc.

Multiple Textures

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Multiple Textures to single Material; add Material;
F6: Texture Buttons: Add New; dropdown: Image; Load Image - load from harddisk;
Apply as Bumpmap (Change from Color to Normals in Map To Panel);
2nd Texture: Stack of boxes under Texture Button (F6);
Evtl. change name - Select Second Box below, Add New, Choose Image from Dropdown, load from Harddrive - Rename second.
second texture selected - F5 - Material Buttons - Map To Panel - Colour selected, move down colour slider to let first shine through.

Second example (video:) both textures (name!) applied to colour mapping on Map To Panel.
Blender renders Tops down according to list, set transparent via colour slider.
Dropdown Menu over colour slider in Map To Panel: "trial and error"


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displace vertices and meshes based on white, black, grey - value of texture applied to them.
Generally to create landscape.
Subdivide plane strongly; add material - F6:add texture -choose clouds from dropdown.(clouds: built-in blackandwhite texture;
clouds panel: increase noise size; soft noise - hard noise;)
F9 Editing panel - Noise button in Mesh Tools Panel. All vertices selected: click Noise Button. Multiple click - stronger effect on vertices.
Now load Image as texture: once applied, applying via F9 - Noise button on editing buttons adds to noise deformation before (current state of mesh).

Tweaking Materials

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more basic controls that effect render: shadow, transparency, wire, shadeless,
Scene: plane, object and 2 lamps for lighting.

Shadow: by default Blender renders shadows; F5: Shaders Panel: Button "Traceable" on: shadows cast, off: no shadows.
Other way: select plane, Button "shadow" in F5 Shaders Panel determines if Objuect accepts-displays shadows cas by other objects.

Transparency: By default set to 1 (solid, bno transparency) - slider in F5 - Material Panel bottom right "A" - for Alpha-channel, set lower than 1: transparency.
To render with transparency: F5 Mirror Transparency Panel: choose z-transparency (or Ray-transparency)

Wire: in F5 MAterial Panel check Button Wire: renders wire of object with material colour.
Shadeless: F5 MAterial Pnle check Button "Shadeless" - renders without any shade, flat colour.
Shader: F5 Shader Panel: emit slider right bottom of panel, increase value: material appears to emitt light.

Transparent Image Texture

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png file best, own alpha channel + transparent information - create in gimp or photoshop.
To show transparency in loaded texture: F6 -Image Panel - select Use Alpha Button
Adjust Position: choose projection shape in Map To Panel (here tube though sphere)
MAp Input Panel: adjust size and offset.

UV Texture 1

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Regular Textures: Procedural or Image: Add Material, then Add Texture, load Image- applied to mesh coordinates based on choosing kind of object/object coordinates;
More control: UV Mapping
3D mesh unwrapped, all faces laid flat, image file: map to this unwrapped and flattened mesh, pixel by pixel, wrapped back to form, map retains this coordinates pixel by pixel - new coordinates u, v - for width, height; instead of now useless x,y,z.
Usually for complex models, but game engines and googleearth require UV mapping.

UV Texture 2

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1.: Make all normals point outwards: Edit mode: Editing buttons - Mesh Tools More panel - click Draw Normals - change size on slider above to see better
Ctrl + N : recalculate normals outside

2.: Open UV Image Editor window via window dropdown menu in right window. Flat grid where faces will be located flat and image will be applied.

3. Change from Object Mode to UV Face Select Mode
Select Face - automtically transferred flat on UV Image Editor.

4.: load Image (in UV Image Editor WindowGot To Image - Open - and load it ).
Displays in Editor - Applied to 3D Viewport dispaly automatically.

Rotate: 3D Viewport: Face (Menu) - Rotate UVs - UV co-ordinates
Resize: Image Editor: A to select all, S to scale -

4. To Render: Material Buttons - Add New Material - click "Tex Face" in Material Panel - tells Blender Texture will be UV Imgae Text Face.

Remove: Unclick Tex Face - Edtiing Buttons: x - delete in MEsh Panel UV Texture.


Blender Camera

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Delete - Add camera (Space/Shift+A - Add - Camera);
Align Camera to view: Ctrl + Alt +Num0 or via Menu - View - Align View - Align active camera to view.
Controls in Object Buttons, Camera Panel:
closer - away: Increase - decrease Lens number (arrows)
Default render perspective projection - change by button orthographic for exceptions.
Show Limits - best in top view: if you decrease limit, you can decide what objects camera can see /render.
Name displays "camera" in camera view
Mist - if you use it
Title Safe - takes away inner line for safe are, outer is real display line. Passepartout - for convenience.

Align Active Camera

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define view - press Ctrl + Alt +Num0 - f12 to render (Menu: View-Align view - Align active camera to view.

Camera Constraints


Basic Keyframe Animation
Timeline Window
IPO (Interpolation) Curve Window


Lamp Lamp
Spot Lamp
Sun Lamp
Hemi Lamp


Render Preview Details

Shift + P brings up miniwindow in your 3Dviewport, resive/move over details you want to preview instead of waiting for a complete Render

Dump Window
Render Image
Render Screen



World Background Colour

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Shading Buttons F5- World (right submenu F5); Blend; Real; Paper

World Background Image

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Shading Buttons F5 - World (right submenu F5)- Texture&Input Panel: add new, name - switch to Texture Buttons (submenu F5) there Image Panel - load Image - back to World Buttons (submenu F5)- Map To Panel (underneath Texture&Input) - deselect "Blend" (as no selection in Preview) select Horizon - voila; Modify: smaller- zooms in/clips; larger - tiling;